Bibliography Format Mla Vs Apa Funny

Our citation generator is great for automatically compiling your bibliographies, but it's still important you know the process of creating a bibliography manually, and the reasons why citing your sources is necessary.

For these reasons we have prepared the following set of guides to assist you:

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  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings style
  • Advanced Engineering Materials style
  • Acta Ophthalmologica style
  • Advanced Materials style
  • Ameghiniana style
  • American Political Science Association style
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers style
  • American Association for Cancer Research style
  • Acta Polytechnica style
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition style
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists style
  • Alternatives to Animal Experimentation style
  • Annals of the Association of American Geographers style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, page-first) style
  • Aquatic Living Resources style
  • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Association for Computational Linguistics - Conference Proceedings style
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta style
  • Biotropica style
  • British Journal of Political Science style
  • British Journal of Surgery style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings - Extended Abstract Format style
  • Acta Neurochirurgica style
  • BYZANTINA SYMMEIKTA style
  • Acta Naturae style
  • Acta Palaeontologica Polonica style
  • Advances in Complex Systems style
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press style
  • De Buck (Dutch) style
  • Ecology Letters style
  • Advanced Functional Materials style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles) style
  • ACS Nano style
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, sentence case) style
  • American Heart Association style
  • Administrative Science Quarterly style
  • American Chemical Society (page-first) style
  • Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien style
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, no "et al.") style
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism style
  • Annual Reviews (author-date) style
  • Arzneimitteltherapie style
  • American Journal of Surgical Pathology style
  • American Journal of Epidemiology style
  • ACM SIGGRAPH style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 15+ authors) style
  • Archaeometry style
  • Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie style
  • Acta Pharmaceutica style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Medical Association (no "et al.") style
  • ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) style
  • Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine style
  • African Zoology style
  • AIDS style
  • Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae style
  • American Medical Association style
  • American Phytopathological Society (numeric) style
  • Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) (Swedish) style
  • BioMed Research International style
  • American Journal of Health Behavior style
  • American Anthropological Association style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria abreviada. Exemplo: MENDES, J.) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Physiological Society style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Campus adventiste du Salève - Faculté adventiste de théologie (French) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Spanish/Español) style
  • Asian Studies Review style
  • American Journal of Archaeology style
  • Australian Veterinary Journal style
  • Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales (French) style
  • Annals of Oncology style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance, without titles) style
  • Cerebral Cortex style
  • Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (Spanish) style
  • American Journal of Neuroradiology style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition style
  • Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems style
  • Austral Ecology style
  • Biometrics style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Sequence (numeric) style
  • American Sociological Association style
  • Biochemical Journal style
  • Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research style
  • Allergy style
  • American Institute of Physics style
  • Endocrine Press style
  • Environmental Conservation style
  • Cellular Reprogramming style
  • Coral Reefs style
  • Corrosion style
  • Biophysical Journal style
  • Boreal Environment Research style
  • ergoscience style
  • European Journal of Soil Science style
  • BioTechniques style
  • Building Structure (Chinese) style
  • Carcinogenesis style
  • Cell style
  • Emu - Austral Ornithology style
  • Ecosystems style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles, sorted alphabetically) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Université de Montréal) (French - Canada) style
  • Chest style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (author-date, Chinese) style
  • Entomological Society of America style
  • Equine Veterinary Education style
  • Australian Historical Studies style
  • Acta Materialia style
  • American Chemical Society (author-date) style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases style
  • Equine Veterinary Journal style
  • American Journal of Plant Sciences style
  • Biochemical Society Transactions style
  • Clinical Otolaryngology style
  • European Journal of Information Systems style
  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies style
  • Evolution & Development style
  • American Mineralogist style
  • Annals of Botany style
  • Antiquity style
  • Biological Psychiatry style
  • Conservation Biology style
  • Evolutionary Anthropology style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (German) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Turkish) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (note, Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • BioMed Central style
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection style
  • Current Protocols journals style
  • Frontiers in Optics style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 3+ authors) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note, no Ibid.) style
  • Fish and Fisheries style
  • France (tous les auteurs, numérotation, French) style
  • Freshwater Biology style
  • ANPET - Congresso de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research style
  • Acta Philosophica style
  • Ear and Hearing style
  • Économie et Statistique (French) style
  • Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry style
  • Free Radical Research style
  • AMBIO style
  • American Journal of Political Science style
  • Academy of Management Review style
  • Ausonius Éditions (French) style
  • American Chemical Society style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Name (numeric, sorted alphabetically) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (author-date, German) style
  • Diplo style
  • Advances in Alzheimer's Disease style
  • Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften (Heilmann) (German) style
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine style
  • Aging Cell style
  • Annals of Neurology style
  • Austrian Legal (German - Austria) style
  • Bioinformatics style
  • Decision Sciences style
  • Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata style
  • American Phytopathological Society style
  • Anticancer Research style
  • Annals of Biomedical Engineering style
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering style
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, German) style
  • Ethics (for book reviews) style
  • Écoscience style
  • Environmental Chemistry style
  • American Geophysical Union style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Avian Pathology style
  • Biochemistry style
  • Annual Review of Medicine style
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, sorted alphabetically, German) style
  • American Fisheries Society style
  • Ethnobiology and Conservation style
  • European Society of Cardiology style
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • Anesthesiology style
  • Antarctic Science style
  • Brain style
  • Canadian Public Policy style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Provost) (French - Canada) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, German) style
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science style
  • European Journal of Pain style
  • American Journal of Clinical Pathology style
  • Evolution style
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal style
  • Genèses: Sciences sociales et histoire (French) style
  • Global Ecology and Biogeography style
  • American Psychological Association 5th edition style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (single-spaced bibliography) style
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen - Institut für Ethnologie und Ethnologische Sammlung (German) style
  • Avian Diseases style
  • Babes-Bolyai University - Faculty of Orthodox Theology (Romanian) style
  • Bluebook Inline style
  • BMJ style
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases style
  • DNA Research style
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms style
  • European Journal of Political Research style
  • Harvard - Anglia Ruskin University style
  • American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics style
  • American Medical Association (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research style
  • Hamburg School of Food Science (diploma, German) style
  • Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering style
  • British Journal of Cancer style
  • Conservation Letters style
  • Applied Spectroscopy style
  • Harvard - Cardiff University style
  • American Journal of Primatology style
  • American Medical Association (no URL) style
  • Harvard - Manchester Business School style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (library list) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note) style
  • Conservation Physiology style
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica style
  • Arachne style
  • Archéologie médiévale (French) style
  • Ecology style
  • Environment and Planning style
  • Eye style
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (annotated bibliography with abstract) style
  • Free Radical Biology & Medicine style
  • Harvard - Durham University Business School style
  • American Physics Society style
  • American Meteorological Society style
  • Hydrological Sciences Journal style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note) style
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-1987 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics style
  • Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies style
  • Chemical Senses style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (figures and illustrations) style
  • European Cells & Materials style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria completa. Exemplo: MENDES, José) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Harvard - Institut für Praxisforschung (Bahr & Frackmann) (German) style
  • Frontiers medical journals style
  • American Society of Civil Engineers style
  • American Society for Microbiology style
  • Ingeniería Agrícola (Spanish) style
  • Clays and Clay Minerals style
  • Body & Society style
  • British Journal of Anaesthesia style
  • Clinical Nuclear Medicine style
  • Copernicus Publications style
  • American Journal of Agricultural Economics style
  • Geological Magazine style
  • European Journal of Ophthalmology style
  • Harvard - Leeds Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - King's College London style
  • International Journal of Lexicography style
  • Annals of Applied Biology style
  • Deutsches Archäologisches Institut style
  • British Journal of Dermatology style
  • CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets style
  • Elsevier Vancouver style
  • American Journal of Botany style
  • Clay Minerals style
  • Collection du Centre Jean-Bérard (French) style
  • Cite Them Right 10th edition - Harvard style
  • Association for Computing Machinery style
  • Freie Universität Berlin - Geographische Wissenschaften (German) style
  • Harvard - University of Cape Town style
  • Harvard - University of Birmingham style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (no DOIs, no issue numbers) style
  • Arachnology style
  • American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America style
  • DIN 1505-2 (alphanumeric, German) style
  • British Journal of Haematology style
  • Art History style
  • BioEssays style
  • Current Proteomics style
  • American Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Harvard - Manchester Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - Cape Peninsula University of Technology style
  • Harvard - University of Kent style
  • Human Resource Management Journal style
  • BibTeX generic citation style style
  • Biological Journal of the Linnean Society style
  • International Pig Veterinary Society Congress Proceedings style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, annotated bibliography) style
  • Briefings in Bioinformatics style
  • Forensic Science Review style
  • Bulletin of Marine Science style
  • Cuadernos de Filología Clásica. Estudios Griegos e Indoeuropeos (autor-año, Spanish) style
  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation style
  • Harvard - University of Leeds style
  • Immunological Reviews style
  • Biological Reviews style
  • Journal of Adolescent Health style
  • Ecological Entomology style
  • Circulation style
  • Council of Science Editors, Name-Year (author-date) style
  • Disability and Rehabilitation style
  • British Journal of Industrial Relations style
  • American Veterinary Medical Association style
  • Current Opinion journals style
  • Épidémiologie et Santé Animale style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, Basque) style
  • Harvard - University of Gloucestershire style
  • Harvard (German/Deutsch) style
  • Health Services Research style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Czech) style
  • Infoclio (petites majuscules, French) style
  • Bluebook Law Review style
  • Cytometry style
  • Elsevier Harvard 2 style
  • Freshwater Science style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (curriculum vitae, sorted by descending date) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (French/Français) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Italian/Italiano) style
  • European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide style
  • Chroniques des activités archéologiques de l'Ecole française de Rome (French) style
  • Database style
  • Diatom Research style
  • Harvard - University of Sunderland style
  • Bioelectromagnetics style
  • History and Theory style
  • Israel Medical Association Journal style
  • International Conference on Information Systems Development style
  • Catholic Biblical Association (full note) style
  • Emerald journals (Harvard) style
  • European Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Journal of Animal Science style
  • Elsevier (numeric, without titles) style
  • Drugs of Today style
  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean style
  • Gastroenterology style
  • Genome Biology and Evolution style
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation style
  • Fertility and Sterility style
  • EMBO reports style
  • Engineering in Life Sciences style
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases style
  • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters style
  • Hydrobiologia style
  • International Journal of Cancer style
  • Jahrbuch für evangelikale Theologie (German) style
  • Journal of Archaeological Research style
  • Drug Development Research style
  • Brazilian Journal of Botany style
  • Harvard style
  • Harvard - City University London style
  • European Journal of Emergency Medicine style
  • El profesional de la información (Spanish) style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (Russian) style
  • Australian Journal of Earth Sciences style
  • France (auteurs et al., numérotation, French) style
  • Geografie Sborník ČGS (Czech) style
  • Evolutionary Ecology Research style
  • Blood style
  • Bluebook Law Review (2) style
  • International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health style
  • Journal for the History of Astronomy style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles) style
  • Cell Transplantation style
  • Harvard - Gesellschaft für Bildung und Forschung in Europa (German) style
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology style
  • European Journal of Immunology style
  • Environmental Health Perspectives style
  • Coventry University - Harvard style
  • Centaurus style
  • Chicago style
  • Fachhochschule Kiel - Fachbereich Medien (German) style
  • Forest Science style
  • Geology style
  • Irish Historical Studies style
  • British Ecological Society style
  • Gallia (French) style
  • Genes to Cells style
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire style
  • Harvard - Cranfield University style
  • Health Policy and Planning style
  • European Journal of Neuroscience style
  • Journal of Mammalogy style
  • European Respiratory Journal style
  • Harvard - University of Limerick style
  • Harvard - The University of Melbourne style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University - Faculty of Health and Life Sciences style
  • Hypotheses in the Life Sciences style
  • British Journal of Pharmacology style
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, French) style
  • Harvard - European Archaeology style
  • Hepatology style
  • IEEE style
  • Indoor Air style
  • InVisu (French) style
  • Histoire@Politique. Politique, culture, société (French) style
  • Critical Care Medicine style
  • Sascha Foerster - Geisteswissenschaft (German) style
  • Harvard - University of Wolverhampton style
  • Heart Rhythm style
  • INTER: Romanian Review for Theological and Religious Studies style
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics style
  • Harvard - Swinburne University of Technology style
  • ICES Journal of Marine Science style
  • ISO-690 (full note, Slovak) style
  • Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française (French) style
  • Global Change Biology style
  • Journal of Fish Diseases style
  • Journal of Pollination Ecology style
  • ISO-690 (note, no abstract, French) style
  • Journalistica (Danish) style
  • Frontiers journals style
  • Frontiers in Physics style
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (German) style
  • Journal of Basic Microbiology style
  • Cell journals (numeric) style
  • Cell Research style
  • Indian Journal of Medical Research style
  • Harvard - Staffordshire University style
  • Journal of Internal Medicine style
  • Journal of Visualized Experiments style
  • Journal of Atrial Fibrillation style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, no abstract, French) style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (note, German) style
  • Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie style
  • Clio Medica style
  • Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German) style
  • Harvard - The University of Northampton style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, no Ibid.) style
  • Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology style
  • Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Sciences sociales (author-date, French) style
  • Histoire & Mesure (French) style
  • Journal of Management Information Systems style
  • Karger journals (author-date) style
  • Journal of Avian Biology style
  • Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition style
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta style
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons style
  • Drug Testing and Analysis style
  • Insectes Sociaux style
  • International Journal of Epidemiology style
  • Journal of Applied Animal Science style
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology style
  • Human Brain Mapping style
  • Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Technologie und Lernen (German) style
  • Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia style
  • Environmental & Engineering Geoscience style
  • France (tous les auteurs, auteur-date, French) style
  • Genetics style
  • Harvard Reference format 7 (author-date, German) style
  • Bournemouth University - Harvard style
  • Manchester University Press monographs style
  • International Union of Crystallography journals style
  • Heredity style
  • Human Reproduction style
  • Currents in Biblical Research style
  • International Journal of Climatology style
  • Journal of Common Market Studies style
  • Journal of Biogeography style
  • Environmental Microbiology style
  • HAND style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University style
  • Harvard - University of Abertay Dundee style
  • McDonald Institute Monographs style
  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy style
  • Early Medieval Europe style
  • Journal of Chemical Ecology style
  • IEEE (with URL) style
  • Infoclio (sans majuscules, French) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (in-text, German) style
  • Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing style
  • Infoclio (German - Switzerland) style
  • Information Systems Research style
  • International Journal of Exercise Science style
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry style
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology style
  • Harvard - University of West London style
  • Harvard - University of Hull style
  • Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering style
  • Ekonomie a Management (Czech) style
  • Elsevier Harvard (with titles) style
  • FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) style
  • France (auteurs et al., auteur-date, French) style
  • G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics style
  • Journal of Combinatorics style
  • Elsevier Harvard (without titles) style
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association style
  • Institute of Physics (numeric) style
  • International Organization style
  • Journal of Hypertension style
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry style
  • Harvard - York University style
  • Modern Language Association 6th edition (note) style
  • Journal of Dental Research style
  • Geopolitics style
  • Harvard - AGPS (Australia) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, parentheses, Czech) style
  • International Microbiology style
  • Investigative Radiology style
  • Journal of Integrated OMICS style
  • Journal of Consumer Research style
  • Human Mutation style
  • International Journal of Audiology style
  • Harvard - Imperial College London style
  • European Retail Research style
  • First Monday style
  • French Politics style
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology style
  • Invertebrate Systematics style
  • Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery style
  • Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering style
  • Journal of Experimental Botany style
  • Invertebrate Biology style
  • Future Science Group style
  • Health Economics, Policy and Law style
  • Mohr Siebeck - Recht (German - Austria) style
  • Journal of Neurosurgery style
  • Harvard - London South Bank University style
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (numeric) style
  • Journal of Transport Geography style
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology style
  • Geoarchaeology style
  • Grasas y Aceites style
  • Human Reproduction Update style
  • Molecular Plant style
  • Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair style
  • Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine style
  • Harvard - North-West University style
  • Journal of Forensic Sciences style
  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Slovak) style
  • Harvard - Bath University style
  • Institute of Physics (Harvard) style
  • Harvard - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Spanish) style
  • Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Proceedings style
  • ISO-690 (note, without bibliography, Czech) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, brackets, Czech) style
  • Journal of Infectious Diseases style
  • Journal of the American Water Resources Association style
  • Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs style
  • Harvard - Newcastle University style
  • Harvard - University of Greenwich style
  • Journal of Rheumatology style
  • Journal of Applied Philosophy style
  • Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft style
  • Journal of Wildlife Diseases style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - School of East Asian Studies style
  • International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry style
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (German) style
  • Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties style
  • Journal of Nutrition style
  • Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis style
  • Journal of Alzheimer's Disease style
  • Macromolecular Reaction Engineering style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - Town and Regional Planning style
  • International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics style
  • Obesity style
  • Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg (German) style
  • Harvard - University of the West of England (Bristol) style
  • Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons style
  • Le Mouvement Social (French) style
  • Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience style
  • Journal of Glaciology style
  • Harvard - University of Technology, Sydney style
  • Hong Kong Journal of Radiology style
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology style
  • Human Pathology style
  • Interaction Design & Architecture(s) style
  • Journal of Hearing Science style
  • Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques style
  • Journal of Human Evolution style
  • MIS Quarterly style

Annotated Bibliography Samples

Summary:

This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.

Contributors: Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper, Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee
Last Edited: 2018-02-20 13:19:26

Overview

For a sample of an entry from an annotated bibliography entry in PDF, click on the downloadable file in the media box above.

Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecuritiesand failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters inLamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamottincludes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 2016 Formatting and Style Guide.

Sample APA Annotation

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.

For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide.

Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation

Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess. London: Routledge, 1998.

Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.

This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.

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