For other uses, see Homework (disambiguation).
Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, math problems to be solved, material to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced.
The effect of homework is debated. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children and may improve academic skills among older students. It also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing sports, working, sleeping or in other activities.
The basic objectives of assigning homework to students are the same as schooling in general: to increase the knowledge and improve the abilities and skills of the students, to prepare them for upcoming (or complex or difficult) lessons, to extend what they know by having them apply it to new situations, or to integrate their abilities by applying different skills to a single task. Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education. Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned.
Teachers have many purposes for assigning homework including:
- personal development,
- parent–child relations,
- parent–teacher communications,
- peer interactions,
- public relations, and
Homework research dates back to the early 1900s. However, no consensus exists on the general effectiveness on homework. Results of homework studies vary based on multiple factors, such as the age group of those studied and the measure of academic performance.
Among teenagers, students who spend somewhat more time on homework generally have higher grades, and somewhat higher test scores than students who spend less time on homework. Very high amounts of homework cause students' academic performance to worsen, even among older students. Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than 2 hours in high school score worse.
However, younger students who spend more time on homework generally have slightly worse, or the same academic performance than those who spend less time on homework. Homework does not improve academic achievements for grade school students.
Low-achieving students receive more benefit from doing homework than high-achieving students. However, schoolteachers commonly assign less homework to the students who need it most, and more homework to the students who are performing well.
The amount of homework given does not necessarily affect students' attitudes towards homework and various other aspects of school.
Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved. Vazsonyi & Pickering (2003) studied 809 adolescents in American high schools, and found that, using the Normative Deviance Scale as a model for deviance, the correlation was r = .28 for Caucasian students, and r = .24 for African-American students. For all three of the correlations, higher values represent a higher correlation between time spent on homework and poor conduct.
Bempechat (2004) says that homework develops students' motivation and study skills. In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills. Their students were more likely to have negative perceptions about homework and were less likely to ascribe the development of such skills to homework.Leone & Richards (1989) found that students generally had negative emotions when completing homework and reduced engagement compared to other activities.
Health and daily life
Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students. Studies on the relation between homework and health are few compared to studies on academic performance.
Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches. Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework.
A 2007 study of American students by MetLife found that 89% of students felt stressed from homework, with 34% reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework. Stress was especially evident among high school students. Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep.
Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students' family and leisure time. In the Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) survey, failure to complete homework and low grades where homework was a contributing factor was correlated with greater conflict; some students have reported teachers and parents frequently criticizing their work. In the MetLife study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks.Kohn (2006) argued that homework can create family conflict and reduce students' quality of life. The authors of Sallee & Rigler (2008), both high school English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students' extracurricular activities and responsibilities. However, Kiewra et al. (2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and responsibilities. Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) recommended further empirical study relating to this aspect due to the difference between student and parent observations.
Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) surveyed 4,317 high school students from ten high-performing schools, and found that students reported spending more than 3 hours on homework daily. 72% of the students reported stress from homework, and 82% reported physical symptoms. The students slept an average of 6 hours 48 minutes, lower than the recommendations prescribed by various health agencies.
A study done at the University of Michigan in 2007 concluded that the amount of homework given is increasing. In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9 years, it was shown that students spend more than 2 hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in 1981.
Some educators argue that homework is beneficial to students, as it enhances learning, develops the skills taught in class, and lets educators verify that students comprehend their lessons. Proponents also argue that homework makes it more likely that students will develop and maintain proper study habits that they can use throughout their educational career.
Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture. With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts. In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade. But, in the 1950s, with increasing pressure on the United States to stay ahead in the Cold War, homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts. By the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, the consensus in American education was overwhelmingly in favor of issuing homework to students of all grade levels.
British students get more homework than many other countries in Europe. The weekly average for the subject is 5 hours. The main distinction for UK homework is the social gap, with middle-class teenagers getting a disproportionate amount of homework compared to Asia and Europe.
In 2012, a report by the OECD showed that Spanish children spend 6.4 hours a week on homework. This prompted the CEAPA, representing 12,000 parent associations to call for a homework strike.
Notes and references
Effectiveness of homework
- Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne C.; Patall, Erika A. (2006). "Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research, 1987-2003". Review of Educational Research. 76 (1): 1–62. doi:10.3102/00346543076001001.
- Epstein, Joyce L. (1988), "Homework practices, achievements, and behaviors of elementary school students", Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools
- Trautwein, Ulrich; Köller, Olaf (2003). "The Relationship Between Homework and Achievement—Still Much of a Mystery". Educational Psychology Review. 15 (2): 115–145. doi:10.1023/A:1023460414243.
- Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E. (2003). "The Importance of Family and School Domains in Adolescent Deviance: African American and Caucasian Youth". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 32 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1023/A:1021857801554.
Homework and non-academic effects
- Bauwens, Jeanne; Hourcade, Jack J. (1992). "School-Based Sources of Stress Among Elementary and Secondary At-Risk Students". The School Counselor. 40 (2): 97–102.
- Bempechat, Janine (2004). "The Motivational Benefits of Homework: A Social-Cognitive Perspective". Theory In Practice. 43 (3): 189–196. doi:10.1353/tip.2004.0029.
- Cheung, S. K.; Leung-Ngai, J. M. Y. (1992). "Impact of homework stress on children's physical and psychological well-being"(PDF). Journal of the Hong Kong Medical Association. 44 (3): 146–150.
- Conner, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie (2009). "Success with Less Stress". Health and Learning. 67 (4): 54–58.
- Cooper, Robinsin & Patall (2006, pp. 46–48)
- Galloway, Mollie; Conner, Jerusha; Pope, Denise (2013). "Nonacademic Effects of Homework in Privileged, High-Performing High Schools". The Journal of Experimental Education. 81 (4): 490–510. doi:10.1080/00220973.2012.745469.
- Hardy, Lawrence (2003). "Overburdened, Overwhelmed". American School Board Journal. 190: 18–23.
- Kiewra, Kenneth A; Kaufman, Douglas F.; Hart, Katie; Scoular, Jacqui; Brown, Marissa; Keller, Gwendolyn; Tyler, Becci (2009). "What Parents, Researchers, and the Popular Press Have to Say About Homework". scholarlypartnershipsedu. 4 (1): 93–109.
- Kouzma, Nadya M.; Kennedy, Gerard A. (2002). "Homework, stress, and mood disturbance in senior high school students"(PDF). Psychological Reports. 91 (1): 193–198. doi:10.2466/pr0.2002.91.1.193. PMID 12353781.
- Leone, Carla M.; Richards, H. (1989). "Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 18 (6): 531–548. doi:10.1007/BF02139072. PMID 24272124.
- Markow, Dana; Kim, Amie; Liebman, Margot (2007), The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: The homework experience(PDF), Metropolitan Life Insurance Foundation
- Sallee, Buffy; Rigler, Neil (2008). "Doing Our Homework on Homework: How Does Homework Help?". The English Journal. 98 (2): 46–51.
- West, Charles K.; Wood, Edward S. (1970). "Academic Pressures on Public School Students". Educational Leadership. 3 (4): 585–589.
- Xu, Jianzhong; Yuan, Ruiping (2003). "Doing homework: Listening to students', parents', and teachers' voices in one urban middle school community". School Community Journal. 13 (2): 25–44.
- Ystgaard, M. (1997). "Life stress, social support and psychological distress in late adolescence". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 32 (5): 277–283. doi:10.1007/BF00789040. PMID 9257518.
- Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much
- The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It by Sarah Bennett & Nancy Kalish (2006) Discusses in detail assessments of studies on homework and the authors' own research and assessment of the homework situation in the United States. Has specific recommendations and sample letters to be used in negotiating a reduced homework load for your child.
- Closing the Book on Homework: Enhancing Public Education and Freeing Family Time by John Buell (2004)
- The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents by Harris Cooper (2007)
- The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing by Alfie Kohn (2006)
- The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Etta Kralovec and John Buell (2000)
|Look up homework in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homework.|
- ^Synthesis of research on homework. H Cooper - Educational leadership, 1989 - addison.pausd.org
- ^Needlmen, Robert. "Homework: The Rules of the Game".
- ^Epstein, Joyce L.; Voorhis, Frances L. Van (2001-09-01). "More Than Minutes: Teachers' Roles in Designing Homework". Educational Psychologist. 36 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3603_4. ISSN 0046-1520.
- ^Wallis, Claudia (August 29, 2006). "The Myth About Homework". Time Online.
- ^ abCoughlan, Sean (2016-09-28). "Is homework worth the hassle?". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- ^Bauwens & Hourcade (1992), Conner & Denise (2009), Hardy (2003), Kouzma & Kennedy (2002), West & Wood (1970), Ystgaard (1997).
- ^Seligman, Katherine (1999-12-19). "Parents: Too much homework". Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ abGrohnke, Kennedy, and Jake Merritt. "Do Kids Need Homework?" ScholasticNews/ Weekly Reader Edition 5/6, vol. 85, no. 3, 2016, pp. 7.
- ^"History of Homework". The San Francisco Chronicle. 1999-12-20. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- ^Coughlan, Sean (11 December 2014). "UK families' 'long homework hours'". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- ^Marsh, Sarah (2 November 2016). "Parents in the UK and abroad: do your children get set too much homework?". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
Holiday Homework Solutions (During Summer Vacations) facility for 2017 – 2018 is being maintained to help the students and parents to complete the holiday homework comfortably. You are requested to upload your holiday homework in PDF format and get the solutions with in a week. You can also upload your maths or science problems which you want to know. If the problems are related to NCERT or Exemplar Problems please refer to NCERT Solutions page to get this. The solutions of holiday homework should be uploaded along with the school name at the end of this page. Notification of completion of homework will not be given by the website, you have to check yourself after a week for the solutions.
Students of the upper primary level (Class 6, 7 and 8) are already well informed and are keen to find and learn more. According to CBSE bulletin in session 2017 – 2018, while assigning and preparing homework for the students, it is important to note they are able to develop the skills like relating, thinking, concluding, inferring. Homework should be such that the student neither feel it burdensome nor they lose interest in the subject matter. Moreover it is useful in providing them a happy experience. Homework therefore needs to be thought about and worked upon differently. Emphasis should be given on Vedic mathematics, designing quality homework rather than its quantity.
Encompassing the aforesaid ideas, the CBSE has brought forth a Manual, “Alternatives to Holiday Homework Solutions” for classes VI to VIII. It is collection of ideas transformed into suggestive activities that are creative, interesting, meaningful and interactive, enhancing various skills, directly or indirectly related to subject matter providing students to enhance their learning and gaining knowledge.
VI – VIII
Class 6: HindiEnglishMathsScienceSocial Science
Class 7: HindiEnglishMathsScienceSocial Science
Class 8: HindiEnglishMathsScienceSocial Science
A well rounded development of individual knowledge happens not only from textbooks and formal education but more from the learner’s personal experiences, individual inquisitive nature and social surroundings. Homework is an area of importance and to make it more relevant for the classes 6th, 7th and 8th, appropriate strategies and meaningful activities may be suggested to the schools that give more time to child to explore the environment to develop creative thinking. These activities (like OTBA for class 9 & 11 ) would be so framed that they keep the child interested in subjects and therefore would also help in enhancing the learning power.
Homework is one of the areas that need urgent attention. As the students of class VI, VII and VIII develop a certain learning style and want to know and find more and more. Efforts should be made to make homework more creative and interesting so that the students do not feel burdensome while doing the same and the ultimate purpose of providing homework is served.
A survey was conducted through questionnaire prepared by CBSE to collect feedback from parents, teachers, students and other educationists on “Alternatives to Homework at Upper Primary Level” for Class Sixth, Seventh and Eighth so that appropriate strategies and meaningful activities can be designed and suggested to schools. The questions were directed to know the ideal quantity and purpose of the homework, whether homework should be assigned in all the subjects, internet usage should be a part of the homework or not, how homework helps in teaching.
Keeping in view emerging issues, there is a need to think about giving quality homework emphasizing on acquiring applied learning skills. Few points can be kept in mind while designing a quality homework by teachers:
- Provide students capacity building activities which are followed up and acknowledged like drawing, creative writing, making puzzles, stories, plays, online games, readingonline books and craft.
- Provide them assignment sheets which improve their reading & writing abilities. Homework must enable the student to practice a skill independently.
- A possible discussion can be held with different children on what they would like to do at home to improve in which ever area they deem necessary. Homework must be designed in a way that maximizes the chances of its completion by the students.
- Parents should be able to understand the child’s needs and schools suggestions on how to learn mathematics, logical reasoning, etc. by doing puzzles, writing letters, reading to elders from the newspapers, making household lists, recipe making and cooking.
- Learners who have dyslexia or number difficulty should have practice assignments overcoming their problems.
The child in middle school have a keenness to discover more and prepare for the examination. Learning is about developing new faculties, which become useful as an adult. The years 12 to 15 are years when rules become important, and doing well, excelling are given importance both at home and in the class. As the child grows chronically his/her emotional maturity also grows and there are interests which are beyond just what lessons can give.
The homework assigned should:
- enhance study habits and practice skills (which learners are able to perform independently)
- reinforce necessary skills both scholastic and co-scholastic among the learners.
- enable learners to become independent learners and thinkers and develop among them 21st century skills so that they can participate in Make in India in future.
- lead to the improvement in the academic achievement of the learner.
- expand on the existing knowledge of the learners and be a part of the already acquired competencies in the classroom.
- not put unneeded pressure or stress by including new learning material or difficult material to be worked upon by learners themselves.
- be curriculum based and as per developmental needs of the learners.
- not require specific resources or technology which is not accessible to all learners.
- have clearly defined, purposeful, creative and engaging activities.
It is also advised that teachers can refer to Life Skills Manuals, Health Manuals and Environmental Education Manuals which contain age appropriate and interesting activities which can be taken up by the learners individually. These activities can be assigned to learners so as to enhance their life skills, values and make them health conscious.
Homework is needed, and necessary for a teacher to be able to follow up with each child. The correction and feedback on homework is an important input that helps both parents and children to follow up and improve in areas which are needed. The recourse extra classes, can be reduced if the homework is used for learning improvement and acquisition of diverse skills. We are providing a handful help to solve or helping in solving the holiday homework.
Please mention the school name properly [like ABC Public School, Janak Puri, Delhi (India)], so that the other students of the same school can download the material without uploading the same homework.
Holiday Homework Solutions
(Academic Year 2016 – 2017 )
Bal Bharti Public School, Manesar, Gurgaon
DAV Model School, Durgapur, West Bengal
Delhi International School, Dharma, New Delhi, India
Delhi Public School, Sushant Lok, India
DAV Public School, Anand Vihar, Burla, Sambalpur, Odisha
Jamia Senior Secondary School, JMI, New Delhi
Kendriya Vidyalaya Barrackpore (army)
Kendriya Vidhyalaya, FRI, Dehradun
Kendriya Vidyalaya, CRPF Avadi, Chennai
Kendriya Cidyalaya, Bailey Road, Patna, Bihar
St Dominic Savio’s High School, Patna, Bihar
The Mann School
Yuvashakti Model School (Rohini Branch)
We are trying to help the students as our level best. That’s why we have started this section. For the academic year 2017 – 2018, we will uploading solutions from first week of June 2017. We going to start another section “Projects and Working models” which will help the students to take ideas for working models for the classes 6, 7 and 8. For the class 9 and 10 there will be project files and models for their FA exams. We also upload investigatory project of Physics and Chemistry for class 12 and Computer Science projects and Programme.
If you are in need of some special project that is not uploaded so far, please inform us through FORUMsection, we will try to upload or directly send to you through mail. Our main motive is to help you without giving any trouble. Feel free to contact us.